Municipal and Industrial wastewater treatment plants have strict effluent standards that must be adhered to prior to discharging process water. Harmful quantities of contaminants such as heavy metals and other suspended solids can be removed through coagulation to meet effluent standards.

Metal based coagulants such as Ferric Sulfate and Ferric Chloride are cationic inorganic chemicals used to destabilize colloidal particles to promote agglomeration of flocculant that can be removed during filtration and sedimentation. In addition to particle charge neutralization metal based coagulants hydrolyze rapidly and aid in the removal of total dissolved solids (TDS) through adsorption and co-precipitation.