Drinking water plants are required to clean and disinfect raw water prior to distribution to the public. Raw water as it enters the treatment plant contains suspended particles made up of organic and inorganic material. The primary method to remove suspended solids is through a process called coagulation.

Metal based coagulants are cationic inorganic chemicals used to destabilize colloidal particles to promote agglomeration of flocculant that can be removed during filtration and sedimentation. In addition to particle charge neutralization coagulants such as Ferric Sulfate and Ferric Chloride hydrolyze rapidly and aid in the removal of total dissolved solids (TDS) through adsorption and co-precipitation.