Natural Organic Matter (NOM), as generally quantified by Total Organic Carbon (TOC), reacts with chlorine to form disinfection by-products (DBP’s) such as trihalomethanes (THM’s) and haloacetic acids (HAA’s). Through the… Read more...
Arsenic is a toxic element found in groundwater and surface water. Exposure to arsenic can be injurious to health and therefore is regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. An… Read more...
When chlorine dioxide is fed as a disinfectant or oxidizing agent it reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) and forms a disinfection byproduct called Chlorite. Chlorite is a harmful substance… Read more...
Compared to aluminum coagulants, iron hydroxides are insoluble over a wider pH range and less soluble than aluminum hydroxide. Iron coagulants form a heavier stronger floc, and form iron-metal complexes… Read more...
Metal salts can be effectively used in wastewater systems to remove phosphate. When the metal salts hydrolyze in water they form metal hydroxide flocs that will absorb the phosphate. The… Read more...
Ferric Sulfate can be used to effectively remove selenium through adsorption and iron co-precipitation. Selenite is strongly adsorbed to the ferric hydroxide particle, so it is recommended that selenate be… Read more...