Applications

Arsenic is a toxic element found in groundwater and surface water. Exposure to arsenic can be injurious to health and therefore is regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. An… Read more...
When chlorine dioxide is fed as a disinfectant or oxidizing agent it reacts with natural organic matter (NOM) and forms a disinfection byproduct called Chlorite. Chlorite is a harmful substance… Read more...
As water temperatures decrease, raw water viscosity increases and results in poor mixing velocity gradients and slower particle settling. Read more...
Drinking water plants are required to clean and disinfect raw water prior to distribution to the public. Raw water as it enters the treatment plant contains suspended particles made up… Read more...
Compared to aluminum coagulants, iron hydroxides are insoluble over a wider pH range and less soluble than aluminum hydroxide. Iron coagulants form a heavier stronger floc, and form iron-metal complexes… Read more...
Sulfate reducing bacteria found within the slime layer of sewer pipe walls reduce sulfate to sulfite. If sulfides are left untreated in the liquid stream,… Read more...
Metal salts can be effectively used in wastewater systems to remove phosphate. When the metal salts hydrolyze in water they form metal hydroxide flocs that will absorb the phosphate. The… Read more...
Ferric Sulfate can be used to effectively remove selenium through adsorption and iron co-precipitation. Selenite is strongly adsorbed to the ferric hydroxide particle, so it is recommended that selenate be… Read more...
Chemical conditioning of sludge with Ferric Sulfate improves the efficiency of sludge dewatering and can reduce the quantity of polymer used for sludge thickening. Residual… Read more...
Ferric Sulfate can be used to bind the soluble orthophosphate preventing it from combining with magnesium and ammonium and forming struvite. The use of Ferric… Read more...
Natural Organic Matter (NOM), as generally quantified by Total Organic Carbon (TOC), reacts with chlorine to form disinfection by-products (DBP’s) such as trihalomethanes (THM’s) and haloacetic acids (HAA’s). Through the… Read more...
Municipal and Industrial wastewater treatment plants have strict effluent standards that must be adhered to prior to discharging process water. Harmful quantities of contaminants such as heavy metals and other… Read more...